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Chapter 13. Incorporating JavaScript in HTML

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AttributeSpecification
srcSpecifies the path to a JavaScript file, either relative or absolute.
typeDefines the MIME type; mandatory in HTML4, optional in HTML5.
asyncExecutes the script asynchronously (for external scripts); no value required except in XHTML.
deferExecutes the script after page parsing is complete (for external scripts); no value required except in XHTML.
charsetSpecifies the character encoding in an external script file, e.g., UTF-8.
crossoriginDetermines how the element handles crossorigin requests.
nonceUtilized in Content Security Policy checks (CSP3).

Dealing with Disabled JavaScript

In scenarios where client browsers lack JavaScript support or have it disabled, potentially due to security concerns, informing users about script execution can be achieved using the <noscript> tag. The <noscript> content displays when JavaScript is disabled.

<script> document.write(“Hello, world!”); </script> <noscript>This browser does not support JavaScript.</noscript>

Linking to an External JavaScript File

The src attribute functions akin to href for anchors, accepting absolute or relative URLs. Typically placed within the <head> tags at the document’s beginning.

<script src=”JSfile.js”></script>

Direct Inclusion of JavaScript Code

Alternatively, instead of linking to an external file, JavaScript code can be directly embedded in HTML.

<script> //JS code </script>

Including a JavaScript File for Asynchronous Execution

<script type="text/javascript" src="URL" async></script>

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