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Chapter 1. Versions and Releases

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JavaScript has undergone significant evolution since its inception, with new features and improvements being added regularly. Below is a table summarizing the different versions of JavaScript, along with their key features:

VersionRelease YearKey Features
ECMAScript 1 (ES1)1997The first edition, establishing the core features of JavaScript.
ECMAScript 2 (ES2)1998Standardized the language and incorporated minor updates.
ECMAScript 3 (ES3)1999Introduced regular expressions, better string handling, and try/catch exception handling.
ECMAScript 5 (ES5)2009Added strict mode, JSON support, new Array methods, and improved property definitions.
ECMAScript 2015 (ES6)2015Major update with classes, modules, arrow functions, promises, let/const, and template literals.
ECMAScript 2016 (ES7)2016Introduced the exponentiation operator and Array.prototype.includes.
ECMAScript 2017 (ES8)2017Added async/await, Object.entries(), and Object.values().
ECMAScript 2018 (ES9)2018Included rest/spread properties, asynchronous iteration, and Promise.finally().
ECMAScript 2019 (ES10)2019Brought in Array.prototype.flat(), Array.prototype.flatMap(), Object.fromEntries(), and String.prototype.trimStart()/trimEnd().
ECMAScript 2020 (ES11)2020Added BigInt, dynamic import, optional chaining, and nullish coalescing operator.
ECMAScript 2021 (ES12)2021Features include logical assignment operators, numeric separators, and String.prototype.replaceAll().
ECMAScript 2022 (ES13)2022Added top-level await, class static blocks, and ergonomic brand checks for private fields.
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